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Nahwu Bab I’rob

Bab I’rob

I’rob secara bahasa adalah (الإفْصَاحُ) yang artinya penjelasan, i’rob adalah penjelasan terhadap sesuatu..I’rob itu merupakan perubahan akhir kata (dalam bahasa Arab) karena perbedaan faktor-faktor (amil) yang masuk di atas kata tersebut baik itu secara lafaz (nampak) ataupun taqdir (tak nampak). Ketika suatu kata tersebut dikatakan i’rob artinya ada perubahan akhir pada kata tersebut baik dari rofa’ ke nasab, dari nasab ke khofaz dan sebagainya.
Pembahasan Nahwu bab I’rob pada artikel kali ini di blog ghoorib yang membahas tentang belajar ilmu nahwu shorof. Berikut penjelasan i’rob dalam ilmu nahwu.

Pengertian I’rob

I’rob secara bahasa adalah (الإفْصَاحُ) yang artinya penjelasan, i’rob adalah penjelasan terhadap sesuatu.

Adapun secara istilah, I’rob ialah :
(تَغْيِيْرُ أَوَاخِرِ الكَلِمِ لإِخْتِلَافِ العَوَامِلِ الدّاخِلَةِ عَلَيْهَا لَفْظًا اَوْ تَقْدِيْرًا)

Maksudnya adalah I’rob itu merupakan perubahan akhir kata (dalam bahasa Arab) karena perbedaan faktor-faktor (amil) yang masuk pada kata tersebut baik itu secara lafaz (nampak) ataupun taqdir (tak nampak).

Ketika suatu kata tersebut dikatakan i’rob artinya ada perubahan akhir pada kata tersebut, baik dari rofa’ ke nashab, dari nashab ke khofaz dan seterusnya.
Hukum i’rob yang berubahnya itu selalu di akhir kata, tidak di awalnya maupun di akhirnya.
Adapun pembahasan perubahan awal dan tengah kata itu masuk ke dalam pembahasan ilmu sharaf.
Perubahan akhir kata dalam bahasa Arab disebabkan oleh amil yang masuk pada kata tersebut.
Maka, jika kata tersebut dimasuki amil rafa’ maka akhir kata tersebut hukumnya jadi marfu’.
Jika kata tersebut dimasuki amil nashab maka manshublah ia, jika masuk amil khofaz, maka makhfuz-lah ia, jika dimasuki amil jazam, maka majzumlah ia.
Maksud dari perubahan i’rob lafaz atau taqdir adalah jika huruf terakhir dari suatu kata (dalam bahasa Arab itu huruf shahih, maka masuk dalam kategori LAFZAN.
Adapun jika huruf akhir dari kata tersebut huruf ‘illah (huruf penyakit), maka masuk dalam kategori TAQDIRON.
Huruf-huruf apa saja yang dikategorikan ke dalam huruf ‘illah?
Jawab: Alif, Waw, Yaa’.

Pembagian I’rob

I’rob dalam ilmu nahwu dibagi 4 (empat), dalil atau bukti yang menyatakan empat adalah berdasarkan observasi dan penelitian.

BACA JUGA :  Pengertian dan Contoh-Contoh Mubtada'
Ketika ulama nahwu melakukan observasi dan penelitian terhadap kalam orang arab, mereka mendapati bahwa i’rob tidak lebih dari empat pembagian.
Yaitu : Rofa’, Nashab, Khofaz, dan Jazam.
Jadi, kata dan kalimat pada kalam Arab tidak keluar dari posisi marfu’, manshub, makhfuz, dan majzum.
Maka, posisi ini adalah pokok sekalipun pada suatu kata tunggal.
Apakah pembagian ini berlaku untuk huruf? Jawabannya TIDAK, karena semua huruf itu mabni (tetap) tidak dipengaruhi oleh amil yang masuk atasnya.
Dalam Alfiyah Ibnu Malik diaktakan :
(وَكُلُّ حّرْفٍ مُسْتَحَقٌّ لِلْبِنَاءِ)
Artinya, adapun setiap huruf itu menerima posisi bina’.
Contohnya (هَلْ) adalah huruf dan baris akhirnya selalu sukun, tidak akan berubah baik letaknya di awal, di tengah, maupun di akhir kalimat. Sehingga dikatakanlah bahwa huruf itu tidak menerima i’rob.
Sehingga pembagian I’rob yang empat ini hanya berlaku bagi isim dan fi’il.
Khofaz hanya berlaku pada isim saja, karena seperti yang sudah kita bahas pada artikel sebelumnya bahwa salah satu tanda isim adalah khofaz, tidak ditemukan tanda fi’il itu khofaz.
Adapun jazam atau majzum khusus berlaku pada fi’il, tidak pada isim.
Baca Juga:

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