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Perbedaan Istiqbal and Mustaqbal Dalam ilmu Nahwu

Perbedaan istiqbal dan mustaqbal dalam ilmu nahwu

Dalam ilmu nahwu ada yang namanya fi’il (kata kerja).

Kata kerja atau fi’il tersebut mengandung zaman, masa atau waktu ketika pekerjaan itu dilakukan. Beda waktunya beda pula bentuk fi’il yang digunakan.

Zaman atau waktu pada fi’il dibagi menjadi 3

• مَاضِي : Masa lampau

• حَال / حَاضِر : Masa sekarang

إِسْتِقْبَال / مُسْتَقْبَل : Masa akan datang

Fokus kita pada zaman yang ketiga.

Pada fi’il madhi mengandung masa lampau atau waktu yang telah berlalu.

Pada fi’il mudhari’ mengandung 2 zaman. masa sekarang dan masa mendatang yang kita sebut dengan istilah zaman istiqbal / mustaqbal.

Pada fi’il amr hanya mengandung zaman istiqbal / mustaqbal yang berarti masa setelah masa sekarang.

Istiqbal / Mustaqbal berarti masa akan datang. Sekalipun semenit ke depan .

Lantas ada yang bertanya, apa perbezaan antara istiqbal and mustaqbal dalam ilmu nahwu?

Jawaban singkatnya adalah:

• “إِسْتِقْبَال” (Istiqbal) : Isim mashdar

• “مُسْتَقْبَل” (Mustaqbal) : Isim Maf’ul

Dari segi bahasa dalam kamus Ar-raaid kata “إِسْتِقْبَال” (Istiqbal) adalah isim mashdar dari fi’il “إِسْتَقْبَلَ” yang berarti Penerimaan yang akan datang. Dalam istilah nahwu “إِسْتِقْبَال” berarti masa setelah masa sekarang.

Sedangkan kata “مُسْتَقْبَل” (Istiqbal) secara bahasa adalah isim maf’ul dari fi’il “إِسْتَقْبَلَ” yang berarti waktu yang akan datang / masa depan. Dalam istilah nahwu “مُسْتَقْبَل” berarti masa yang datang setelah masa sekarang.

Biasanya kata “إِسْتِقْبَال” (Istiqbal) atau “مُسْتَقْبَل” (Mustaqbal) disandingkan dengan kata “zaman/waktu/masa

زَمَانُ الإِسْتِقْبَالِ

زَمَنُ المُسْتَقْبَلِ

Adapun perbedannya adalah pada penggunaan kata saja. Dalam beberapa kitab nahwu seperti kitab Nahwu Wadhih menggunakan istilah “زَمَنُ المُسْتَقْبَلِ” (zamanul mustaqbal).

Dalam beberapa kitab nahwu yang lain seperti di dalam kitab kawakib ad-durriyaah ada juga penggunaan istilah “إِسْتِقْبَال”.

BACA JUGA :  Isytighal Dan Pembagiannya

Tergantung pada penggunaanya, jika konteks kalimatnya sesuai untuk menggunakan isim mashdar, maka gunakan kata “إِسْتِقْبَال” (Istiqbal).

Sedangkan jika konteks kalimatnya membutuhkan maf’ul bih, silahkan gunakan kata “مُسْتَقْبَل” (Mustaqbal).

Dari pembahasan mengenai perbedaan istiqbal and mustaqbal dalam ilmu nahwu ini, muncul istilah yang berkaitan dengan kata “إِسْتِقْبَال” (Istiqbal) atau “مُسْتَقْبَل” (Mustaqbal).

Huruf Istiqbal dan Ilmu Mustaqbal.

Pertama, huruf istiqbal dalam ilmu nahwu.

Huruf Istiqbal dalam ilmu nahwu ada 2:

• س : jangka waktu sedikit

• سَوْفَ : jangka waktu lama

Dua huruf ini hanya terkhusus pada fi’il mudhari’.

Contoh:

• سَيَذْهَبُ : Ia akan pergi

• سَوْفَ يَذْهَبُ : Ia akan pergi

Penggunaan “سَوْفَ” bermakna perbuatan tersebut akan dilakukan dalam jangka waktu yang lama sejak diucapkan.

Kedua, ilmu mustaqbal.

Ilmu mustaqbal adalah Ilmu yang membahas mengenai dunia di masa depan dengan cara melihat data dan informasi yang ada pada masa sekarang.

Itulah penjelasan dari pertanyaan apa perbedaan antara istiqbal dan mustaqbal dalam ilmu nahwu. Semoga bermanfaat, terima kasih…

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